The Human Development Report “Human Development in Response to Demographic Change” shows that Serbia’s population will be declining in the future and that the state and society will have to formulate new responses to the demographic challenges ahead. This will mean formulating new kinds of goals in population policy, which will address both the size and the structure of the population (education, health, employment, etc.). Achieving these goals will depend on the extent to which demographic considerations are considered in specific sectoral policies. In this report, we show what kinds of policies Serbia needs in the domains of labor, education, health, family, urban and regional development, etc. to become a small nation that harnesses the potentials of each individual. The introductory summary presents ten key messages grounded in the findings of the report.